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It should come as no surprise that the first recorded use of the number zero, recently discovered to be made as early as the 3rd or 4th century, happened in India. Mathematics on the Indian subcontinent has a rich history going back over 3,000 years and thrived for centuries before similar advances were made in Europe, with its influence meanwhile spreading to China and the Middle East.
As well as giving us the concept of zero, Indian mathematicians made seminal contributions to the study of trigonometry, algebra, arithmetic and negative numbers among other areas. Perhaps most significantly, the decimal system that we still employ worldwide today was first seen in India.
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This past week in the Gulf region, business was as usual and life generally carried on unperturbed by the now well settled in lower price of oil and the well publicised blockade of Qatar by its nearest neighbours. Here are some snapshots amongst the very few of importance as compared to those coming out of the rest of the MENA’s and the Arab World.
Indeed, Saudi Arabia appears now to be failing on its 2 open fronts of Yemen and Qatar. In the latter, it failed to entirely bring its geopolitical rival to heed by cutting off its access to food, funding and fuel. It even managed to effectively turn Qatar’s sovereign wealth fund from a globe-trotting buyer to a domestic . . . .
Would an amendment to the law on currency and credit in Algeria together with the introduction of unconventional funding impact the economy with inflationary risks and opportunities reduction?
A draft amending the law on money and credit, allowing the Bank of Algeria to “directly” lend to the Treasury, was recently adopted by the Council of Ministers. Moreover, the Government notes that the recovery of the budgetary balances is dictated by the constraints imposed on public finances and the use of exceptional and transitional (for a period of five years) methods to allow non-conventional finance, including direct funding of the Treasury via the Bank of Algeria.
An article dated June 13, 2017 by Tarek Osman and published by Project Syndicate covers in our view all relevant aspects of the Arabic speaking part of the MENA region. Considering that the Arab World’s coming challenges are at this conjecture of transition of fortunes as vitally important as they have never been before, we reproduce here with our compliments to the author as well as thanks to the publishers. It starts like this:
“When it comes to the Middle East, it is no surprise that political leaders, diplomats, and the donor and humanitarian community typically focus on the here and now. Yet we must not lose sight of the future – especially when regional trends are conspiring to bring further turmoil and conflict.”
Countries in the MENA region are more than often in a paradoxical situation that of being the last place on Earth where leaded petrol is legal.
Certain Octane compounds, although banished throughout the world are, still commercialized in certain countries as fuel additives made from Tetra-lead, explains AlgeriePart, a local Algerian media citing The Independent. Tetra-lead or tetraethyl lead Tetraethyllead | Pb(C2H5)4 is an organometallic compound and an oily liquid that has been widely used until the early 2000s as an anti-knock additive in all internal combustion engines petrol . . . .
As put by one commentator of the following article in which we’re advised to Talk about Local ‘Pollution’ not Global Warming saying: “I agree. The reason why the debate (in English) has typically been centered around climate change is because pollution is by-and-large a problem in the developing world only, whereas climate change will also impact those in the developed world. How can we make a better scientific case for climate change to convince the public? So that the public will put pressure on policy-makers? So that they put the right incentives for private capital and businesses to tackle pollution and climate change? . . “. .read more
In the United Kingdom, all universities state their English language requirements in writing, speaking, listening and reading and have them checked through various tests with the minimum grade overall, and usually the minimum grades required specifically tailored for each course. International Students in Britain and the English language requirements are a problematic that is recurrent at every start of a new academic year.
The reasons are various.
The affluence of worldwide candidates coupled with the ever-increasing university costs have over the years been the influencing factors of this seeking higher mastery levels of the English language from each and every one.